The implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS 2010) and National Environmental Management Waste Act (NEMWA 2008) facilitates a paradigm shift over the philosophy and strategy of solid and hazardous waste management. The new paradigm requires us to look at solid waste and refuse as valuable resource rather than a waste as implied by the common meaning of the word. The course explores strategies to get the best out of refuse. The course covers the aspects of environmental regulation relating to refuse collection and refuse disposal with emphasis on recovery, reuse and energy generation. A section will address the code of practices for the design of landfills, incinerators and composting facilities. A significant component will cover the environmental protection strategies from air pollution and leachate. A thorough analysis will be provided on the economics involved between profit generation from refuse treatment and the cost to the environment. The course will enhance the technical knowledge of delegates in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and implementation of the ‘Cradle to Grave’ approach to proper product development. That is why, on the last day of the course, we will dwell on the examples of products such as paper, plastic, cloth, tires, etc., that could benefit from a proper LCA consideration at the point of generation.