Design and development of outcomes-based assessments

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The designing of any document can be a daunting task especially when the
results of the designed documents have such repercussions such as
promotions, salary increases or career advancements to name but a few
benefits.


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The designing of any document can be a daunting task especially when the
results of the designed documents have such repercussions such as promotions,
salary increases or career advancements to name but a few benefits.
So what are these documents?
They are the assessment methods that are used by Registered Assessors to
collect evidence to assess candidates against National Unit Standards which
contain Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria which is used to determine if
a candidate is competent or not yet competent.
The function of an Assessor is not just to determine competency, it involves
a much more detailed process:

? Understand and getting to know the unit standard that will be assessed

? Plan the assessment
? Design the assessment
? Inform the candidate about the assessment
? Conduct the assessment and collect evidence
? Make judgements and provide feedback
? Complete administrative requirements
? Evaluate the assessment process
? If necessary, follow an appeals process
The process listed above has an underlining set of principles which need to
be adhered to throughout, namely the Principles of Good Assessment. These
principles include, Fairness, Validity, Practicability, Transparency, Reliability,
Relevance, Flexibility, Sufficiency, Authenticityand Legitimacy.
Designing and developing is not an easy process as each Unit Standard has
Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria that has to be assessed in order for
competency to be determined, all of this has first to be understood in order for
the correct assessments to be designed.

Certain considerations are taken into account during the designing and
developing of assessment instruments, namely:

? The Cost-effectiveness of the assessment methods
? Any special needs or unfair barriers the candidate may have to
achievement
? The assessment environment
All of these considerations are evaluated when deciding on the type of
assessment method to be used.
So what determines which assessment method to use for an assessment?
The purpose of the assessment determines this for example if theory is to be
assessed then short questions or true/false questions can be given or if
practical work is to be assessed then practical assignments or on the job
observation checklists are designed.
There are different types of assessment methods which can be designed,
some are listed below:
? Essay tests
? Open book examinations
? Practical Examinations
? Delayed-action examinations
? Oral Examinations
? Knowledge assessments
? Simulations
? Role-plays
? Observations
Ensuring there is sufficient evidence for a judgment to be made by an
Assessor is also an important factor to consider so usually not just one or two
assessment methods are designed and developed, normally three or more are
designed.
All of the designing and developing of these outcomes-based assessment
methods are assessed by aModerator who reviews and make recommendations
based on the strengths and weaknesses to see how well they satisfy the
principles of good assessment and if the purpose of the learning intervention
has been achieved.
To design and develop any type of assessment method takes time, which is
why it is important to explore the different types of assessment methods that
are available and allow the creative juices to flow so that ultimately a valid and
reliable assessment method is created.


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